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A method of addressing non-response in the fieldwork stage of a survey by replacing non-responding units with alternate units that were not originally selected to be part of the sample. Alternatively, substitution imputation may substitute plausible values for missing or incorrect data using comparable data from a previous a cycle of a survey or other external source of information.
Little, R. and D.B. Rubin. 2002.
Statistical Analysis with Missing Data
, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
Statistics Canada. Imputation 2006. Available at